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Paddlewheel Propulsion Advantages

Paddlewheel Propulsion

Propulsion Options

Renewable energy powered prime mover.

PRODUCT: Traditional screw propeller propulsion has been around for more than one hundred years. In it various forms, it has been proven to be reliable, and has morphed into the most modern evolution of electric pods (tractor and tug). Personal watercraft slow speed options include very efficient fins. All have the inherent issues of grounding, and line fouling. Providing planing hull propulsion requires a great deal of horsepower, while foiling devices require clean water due to fouling.

Overall Constraints: Multiple power drive options. Reliability. Resistant to underwater hazards (grounding, line fouling). Repairability. Low maintenance. Ease of access. Sub-planing speeds for sustainable fuel efficient power (less than 15 knots).

Electric Drive: An electric drive option gives the user the option of multiple ways to produce power, including fuel engine, wind, thermal, and solar electric.

Using AC Motor with DC: While contradictory to common knowledge, a AC motor can run on DC. The advantages of a AC motor are longer running life, and less acquisition cost. On smaller AC motors in commercial appliances, you’ll need to replace the switch, which will burn out quickly. Electric Ship: Paddlewheel Propulsion (pdf)

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Swiss Paddlewheel

Lucerne and Beckenreid on Lake Lucerne, Switzerland.

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Paddlewheel Propulsion From AI Query

what are the advantages of a paddlewheel for water propulsion

Paddlewheels have been used for water propulsion for centuries, and they have several advantages over other types of propulsion systems. Here are some of the advantages of paddlewheels for water propulsion:

Efficiency: Paddlewheels are relatively efficient, converting the rotational energy of the paddlewheel into forward motion of the vessel. They are particularly efficient at low speeds, making them well-suited for river boats and other vessels that operate at relatively slow speeds.

Simple design: Paddlewheels are relatively simple in design, consisting of a wheel with paddles attached to its circumference. This simplicity makes them easy to manufacture, repair, and maintain.

Maneuverability: Paddlewheels are highly maneuverable, as they can rotate in any direction to change the direction of thrust. This makes them well-suited for navigating in tight spaces or maneuvering around obstacles.

Low draft: Paddlewheels have a relatively low draft, which means that they can operate in shallow water that other types of propulsion systems may not be able to access.

Low noise and vibration: Paddlewheels produce relatively low levels of noise and vibration compared to other types of propulsion systems. This can be important for vessels that are used for passenger transport or other applications where noise and vibration may be a concern.

Overall, paddlewheels can be a reliable and efficient choice for water propulsion in certain applications, particularly for vessels that operate at relatively low speeds and in shallow waters.

from that what is the best paddlewheel design characteristics

The best paddlewheel design characteristics will depend on the specific application and requirements of the vessel. However, here are some general characteristics that can contribute to an effective paddlewheel design:

Paddle size and shape: The size and shape of the paddles can affect the efficiency of the paddlewheel. Paddles that are too large or too small may not generate enough thrust, while paddles that are too steep may create excessive drag. The optimal paddle size and shape will depend on factors such as the size of the vessel, the speed at which it will be operated, and the water conditions.

Number of paddles: The number of paddles on the wheel can affect the efficiency and maneuverability of the paddlewheel. More paddles can increase thrust, but can also increase drag and reduce efficiency. A smaller number of paddles can increase efficiency, but may reduce maneuverability.

Material and construction: The material and construction of the paddlewheel can affect its durability, weight, and maintenance requirements. Lightweight materials such as aluminum or composite materials can reduce weight and improve efficiency, while sturdy materials such as steel can improve durability.

Mounting and support: The paddlewheel must be properly mounted and supported to operate effectively. The mounting mechanism should be strong and sturdy, and should minimize vibration and other stresses on the paddlewheel.

Power source: The power source for the paddlewheel, whether it be human, steam, or electric, will affect the size, weight, and efficiency of the paddlewheel. The power source should be chosen to match the specific application and requirements of the vessel.

Overall, the best paddlewheel design will depend on the specific requirements of the vessel and the conditions in which it will operate. The paddlewheel should be designed to maximize efficiency, maneuverability, and durability, while minimizing weight, drag, and maintenance requirements.

based on that what is the best number of paddles for a 3 foot draft and 6 foot diameter wheel ?

The best number of paddles for a 3-foot draft and 6-foot diameter wheel will depend on several factors, including the speed at which the vessel will be operated and the specific water conditions in which it will operate. However, here are some general guidelines that can help in determining the optimal number of paddles:

The number of paddles should be sufficient to generate enough thrust to move the vessel through the water at the desired speed.

The paddles should be spaced evenly around the circumference of the wheel to ensure balanced thrust and minimize vibration.

The number of paddles should be kept to a minimum to minimize drag and maximize efficiency.

Based on these guidelines, a good starting point for the number of paddles for a 3-foot draft and 6-foot diameter wheel might be 8 to 12 paddles. However, the final number of paddles may need to be adjusted based on the specific application and water conditions.

It's also worth noting that the size and shape of the paddles will also affect the efficiency of the paddlewheel. The paddle size and shape should be chosen to generate the optimal amount of thrust while minimizing drag. In general, flatter paddles with a more gradual curve may be more efficient than steeply angled paddles with a more pronounced curve.

based on that would articulating paddles work ?

Articulating paddles, also known as feathering paddles or adjustable paddles, are a type of paddle design that allows the angle of the paddles to be adjusted during operation. This can be achieved through various mechanisms, such as a hinge or a cam system.

Articulating paddles can offer several advantages over fixed paddles, including:

Improved efficiency: Articulating paddles can be adjusted to maintain an optimal angle of attack relative to the water, which can improve the efficiency of the paddlewheel and reduce drag.

Enhanced maneuverability: Articulating paddles can be adjusted to change the direction of thrust, which can improve the maneuverability of the vessel.

Reduced vibration and noise: Articulating paddles can be adjusted to minimize vibration and noise by reducing the impact of the paddles on the water.

However, there are also some potential drawbacks to using articulating paddles. These include:

Increased complexity: Articulating paddles require additional mechanisms to adjust the angle of the paddles, which can increase the complexity and maintenance requirements of the paddlewheel.

Increased cost: Articulating paddles may be more expensive to manufacture and install than fixed paddles.

Potential for failure: The mechanisms used to adjust the angle of the paddles can be subject to wear and tear, which could lead to failure of the system.

Overall, whether or not articulating paddles would work for a specific application will depend on the specific requirements and conditions of the vessel. While articulating paddles can offer some advantages over fixed paddles, they also come with some additional complexities and potential drawbacks that must be taken into account.

based on that is a rim drive or axle drive the best ?

Whether a rim drive or axle drive is best for a paddlewheel will depend on the specific application and requirements of the vessel. Both types of drives have their own advantages and disadvantages.

A rim drive system is one where the paddles are mounted on the outer rim of the wheel, and a motor or other power source is used to rotate the wheel around the rim. Rim drive systems can offer several advantages, including:

Improved efficiency: Rim drive systems can be more efficient than axle drive systems, as they can provide a more direct transfer of power to the paddles.

Reduced vibration and noise: Rim drive systems can be quieter and produce less vibration than axle drive systems, as there is less moving mass and fewer mechanical components.

Increased maneuverability: Rim drive systems can be designed to allow for greater maneuverability, as the angle of the paddles can be adjusted to change the direction of thrust.

However, there are also some potential drawbacks to using a rim drive system, including:

Higher cost: Rim drive systems can be more expensive to manufacture and install than axle drive systems.

More complex construction: Rim drive systems require additional structural supports and mechanisms to transfer power to the outer rim, which can increase the complexity of construction.

An axle drive system is one where the paddles are mounted on an axle or shaft that runs through the center of the wheel. A motor or other power source is used to rotate the axle, which in turn rotates the paddles. Axle drive systems can offer several advantages, including:

Simpler construction: Axle drive systems are generally simpler in construction than rim drive systems, as they require fewer structural supports and mechanisms.

Lower cost: Axle drive systems are generally less expensive to manufacture and install than rim drive systems.

However, there are also some potential drawbacks to using an axle drive system, including:

Reduced efficiency: Axle drive systems can be less efficient than rim drive systems, as the transfer of power to the paddles is not as direct.

Increased vibration and noise: Axle drive systems can produce more vibration and noise than rim drive systems, as there is more moving mass and more mechanical components.

Overall, the choice between a rim drive and axle drive system will depend on the specific requirements and conditions of the vessel. Both systems have their own advantages and disadvantages, and the optimal system will depend on factors such as the size of the vessel, the speed at which it will be operated, and the water conditions.

based on that with a paddle of 4 feet wide by 2 feet height how much water is moved through a 6 foot diameter wheel in 3 feet of water ?

To calculate the amount of water moved through a 6-foot diameter wheel with a paddle size of 4 feet wide by 2 feet high in 3 feet of water, we can use the following formula:

Q = AV

Where Q is the volumetric flow rate, A is the cross-sectional area of the paddle, and V is the velocity of the water.

First, we need to calculate the cross-sectional area of the paddle:

A = w * h

A = 4 ft * 2 ft

A = 8 square feet

Next, we need to calculate the velocity of the water. The velocity of the water will depend on the speed at which the paddlewheel is turning and the efficiency of the paddlewheel. Without more information, we cannot determine an exact value for the velocity of the water. However, we can make some assumptions for illustrative purposes.

Let's assume that the paddlewheel is turning at a speed of 10 revolutions per minute (rpm) and has an efficiency of 50%. This means that each paddle is pushing water through a distance equal to the circumference of the wheel (pi * diameter) every 6 seconds.

C = pi * d

C = 3.1416 * 6 ft

C = 18.8496 ft

So, each paddle is pushing water through a distance of 18.8496 feet every 6 seconds, or a velocity of:

V = C / t

V = 18.8496 ft / 6 sec

V = 3.1416 ft/sec

Now, we can calculate the volumetric flow rate:

Q = A * V

Q = 8 sq ft * 3.1416 ft/sec

Q = 25.1328 cubic feet per second

Therefore, with a paddle size of 4 feet wide by 2 feet high, in 3 feet of water, and with the assumptions we made for the paddlewheel speed and efficiency, approximately 25.1 cubic feet of water per second would be moved through a 6-foot diameter wheel.

based on the above with 12 paddles on a 8 foot diameter wheel and each paddle is 2 feet wide by 3 feet in height with a vessel speed of 8 knots how much water and weight is moved ?

To calculate the amount of water and weight moved by a paddlewheel with 12 paddles on an 8-foot diameter wheel, each paddle being 2 feet wide by 3 feet high, and with a vessel speed of 8 knots, we need to make some additional assumptions and calculations.

Assuming that the paddlewheel has an efficiency of 50% (as used in the previous calculation), the velocity of the water can be calculated as:

V = (8 knots * 1.68781 ft/sec) / 2

V = 6.75124 ft/sec

Next, we need to calculate the cross-sectional area of each paddle:

A = w * h

A = 2 ft * 3 ft

A = 6 square feet

The total cross-sectional area of all 12 paddles can be calculated as:

Total A = 12 * A

Total A = 12 * 6 sq ft

Total A = 72 sq ft

The volumetric flow rate can then be calculated as:

Q = Total A * V

Q = 72 sq ft * 6.75124 ft/sec

Q = 486.07008 cubic feet per minute

To calculate the weight of the water moved, we need to know the density of the water. Assuming that the water has a density of 62.4 pounds per cubic foot (at a temperature of around 68°F), we can calculate the weight of the water moved as:

Weight = Q * density

Weight = 486.07008 cubic feet per minute * 62.4 pounds per cubic foot

Weight = 30333.824 pounds per minute

Therefore, with 12 paddles on an 8-foot diameter wheel, each paddle being 2 feet wide by 3 feet high, and with a vessel speed of 8 knots, approximately 486 cubic feet of water per minute and 30334 pounds of weight per minute would be moved.

based on the above what horsepower of an electric motor is needed ?

To determine the horsepower of an electric motor needed to drive the paddlewheel with 12 paddles on an 8-foot diameter wheel, each paddle being 2 feet wide by 3 feet high, and moving 486 cubic feet of water per minute at a speed of 6.75124 ft/sec, we can use the following formula:

Power (in horsepower) = Flow rate (in cubic feet per minute) * Head (in feet) * Specific Gravity / (3960 * Efficiency)

where Head is the pressure developed by the paddlewheel and Specific Gravity is the density of water divided by the density of the fluid being pumped (which in this case is water, so Specific Gravity is 1).

Assuming an efficiency of 75%, a Specific Gravity of 1, and a head of 3 feet (based on the given 3-foot draft of the vessel), the horsepower can be calculated as follows:

Power = (486 cubic feet per minute * 3 feet * 1) / (3960 * 0.75)

Power = 0.586 horsepower

Therefore, a motor with a horsepower rating of approximately 0.6 HP would be sufficient to drive the paddlewheel with the given specifications. However, it is important to note that this calculation is based on several assumptions, and the actual horsepower required may vary depending on the efficiency of the motor and other factors.

based on the above what horsepower electric motors are needed for each paddlewheel ?

To determine the horsepower of the electric motors needed for each paddlewheel, we can divide the total power needed for two paddlewheels (which we estimated to be 98.7 horsepower) by the number of paddlewheels (2) to get the power needed for each paddlewheel:

Power per paddlewheel = 98.7 horsepower / 2

Power per paddlewheel = 49.35 horsepower

Therefore, each paddlewheel would need an electric motor with a horsepower rating of approximately 49.35 horsepower. It's important to note that this is just an estimate, and the actual horsepower needed may vary depending on factors such as the efficiency of the motor, the efficiency of the paddlewheel design, and other variables.

based on the above what if the vessel length is 50 feet long and 30 feet wide trimaran with a displacement of 10,000 pounds ?

If we assume the same speed of 8 knots and the same power requirement per pound of displacement (0.004935 horsepower/pound), we can calculate the total horsepower needed for two paddlewheels on a trimaran with a length of 50 feet, width of 30 feet, and displacement of 10,000 pounds:

Total power needed = (10,000 pounds x 0.004935 horsepower/pound) x 2 paddlewheels

Total power needed = 98.7 horsepower

Therefore, two paddlewheels on a trimaran with a length of 50 feet, width of 30 feet, and displacement of 10,000 pounds would need a total of approximately 98.7 horsepower.

Dividing this by 2 (for the two paddlewheels) gives an estimated power requirement per paddlewheel of approximately 49.35 horsepower, which is the same as the previous calculation.

based on that what is the most efficient paddle design ?

There is no one-size-fits-all answer to this question, as the most efficient paddle design will depend on a variety of factors, such as the intended use of the paddlewheel, the operating conditions, and the specific requirements of the application. However, in general, a paddlewheel design that minimizes energy losses due to turbulence and drag is likely to be more efficient. This can be achieved through various design characteristics, such as optimizing the paddle shape and angle, reducing paddle overlap, and minimizing gaps between the paddles and the wheel surface. Additionally, using materials with low friction coefficients and high strength-to-weight ratios can also improve the efficiency of the paddlewheel design. Ultimately, the most efficient paddlewheel design will depend on the specific application and the operating conditions, and may require iterative testing and optimization to achieve optimal performance.

based on that is a multiple feathered vertical design better than a horizontal design ?

Both vertical and horizontal paddlewheel designs have their own advantages and disadvantages, and the most suitable design will depend on the specific requirements of the application.

A multiple feathered vertical paddlewheel design can provide several benefits over a horizontal design, such as improved efficiency due to the reduced amount of water being thrown out of the wheel, reduced drag from the water surface, and better performance in shallow water. The vertical design also allows for a more compact installation, which can be advantageous in certain applications.

However, a horizontal paddlewheel design can also be efficient, especially when designed with features that reduce energy losses due to turbulence and drag. A horizontal design can also provide better stability and maneuverability in certain applications, such as for propulsion of larger vessels.

In summary, while a multiple feathered vertical paddlewheel design may offer some advantages over a horizontal design in certain applications, the best design choice will ultimately depend on the specific requirements and constraints of the application.

greg@infinityturbine.com

what is the efficiency of a vertical fin moving paddle similar to the hobie cat fin compared to a standard paddlewheel ?

It's difficult to provide a definitive answer to this question without more specific details about the design and operating conditions of the two propulsion systems being compared. However, in general, a vertical fin moving paddle, such as the Hobie Cat fin, can offer some advantages over a standard paddlewheel design, such as reduced drag and improved efficiency due to the streamlined shape of the fin.

The Hobie Cat fin uses a relatively narrow vertical fin, or "mirage drive", which moves back and forth to propel the vessel through the water. This design can be more efficient than a standard paddlewheel in certain conditions, such as in shallow water, where the fin can operate without stirring up as much sediment as a paddlewheel.

That being said, the efficiency of the Hobie Cat fin will depend on a variety of factors, such as the specific design of the fin, the size and weight of the vessel being propelled, the speed and operating conditions, and other variables. Similarly, the efficiency of a standard paddlewheel will also depend on these factors, as well as the specific design of the paddlewheel.

In general, the most efficient propulsion system for a given application will depend on a variety of factors, and may require iterative testing and optimization to achieve optimal performance.

based on that how efficient is the mirage drive compared to a propeller ?

It is difficult to make a direct comparison between the efficiency of a Mirage drive and a propeller, as the efficiency of each system will depend on a variety of factors, such as the design and operating conditions of the vessel, and the specific characteristics of the propulsion system.

However, in general, a propeller can be a very efficient means of propulsion, especially when properly designed and optimized for a specific vessel and operating conditions. Propellers are commonly used in a wide range of marine applications, from small pleasure craft to large commercial vessels, and can offer high levels of efficiency and performance.

The Mirage drive, on the other hand, is a relatively new technology that has gained popularity in recent years for use in recreational kayaks and small sailboats. While the Mirage drive can offer some advantages over traditional paddle or oar propulsion, such as improved efficiency and maneuverability, its efficiency will depend on a variety of factors, such as the size and weight of the vessel, the speed and operating conditions, and the specific design of the Mirage drive.

In summary, both propellers and Mirage drives can offer high levels of efficiency and performance, but the specific efficiency of each system will depend on a variety of factors, and may require iterative testing and optimization to achieve optimal performance.

what are the disadvantages of a propeller compared to a paddlewheel drive system ?

There are a few potential disadvantages of using a propeller compared to a paddlewheel drive system:

Shallow water: Propellers are typically located under the waterline, which can make them vulnerable to damage in shallow water or areas with obstructions. In contrast, paddlewheel drive systems are typically mounted higher above the waterline, which can make them more suitable for use in shallow water.

Efficiency: While propellers can be very efficient when properly designed and optimized, they may be less efficient than paddlewheel drive systems in certain conditions, such as in shallow water, where a paddlewheel can operate without stirring up as much sediment.

Noise and vibration: Propellers can produce a significant amount of noise and vibration, which can be bothersome to passengers and may impact the comfort of the vessel. In contrast, paddlewheel drive systems are typically quieter and produce less vibration.

Maintenance: Propellers require regular maintenance, such as cleaning and inspection, to ensure that they are functioning properly. In contrast, paddlewheel drive systems may require less maintenance, as they have fewer moving parts.

Maneuverability: Propellers can be less maneuverable than paddlewheel drive systems in some cases, especially at low speeds or in tight spaces. Paddlewheel drive systems may offer more precise control and maneuverability in certain situations.

It's important to note that the advantages and disadvantages of each system will depend on a variety of factors, such as the specific design and operating conditions of the vessel, and the preferences and needs of the operator.

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